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SOCI 121 / PSYC 120 Introduction to Research Methods

SOCI 121 February 3, 2020

Research Types

Literature Review

A literature review can help identify useful research in specific area of study. In a literature review, researchers systematically read and analyze a large number of articles on a topic to draw some larger connections or conclusions about the topic. Researchers will describe their review method and criteria and will discuss the articles in-depth. 

Longitudinal Studies

Researchers study a group of participants or actions over a long period of time - usually more than one year. Such studies allow researchers to document what has changed for the participants over the years. The article about the study will report about the research questions being investigated, how the study is conducted (methodology) and draw conclusions on the data gathered over a long time.

Qualitative Studies

These vary widely but generally are studies that look at issues don't rely on measuring something to analyze an issue. They can include case studies of the specific persons, groups of people or events.  Case studies are a type of qualitative study.


Quantitative Studies

Researchers investigate their subject and rely on numbers based analysis to draw their conclusions. An example of a typical quantitative study is one where a researcher poses a question, collects and counts data or information about that question then draws conclusion about the issue based on the numerical calculations or analysis. Systematic content analysis of written documents or visual or multimedia items can also be considered quantitative research.

Research Paper Examples

Two examples of what typical student research paper looks like with the typical elements of a scholarly article.

Professional Scholarly Articles - examples

Examples of each type of scholary research listed from the left box. These examples are from a variety of research databases subscribed to by CSM Library. You'll need a Peninsula Library System library card to read them from off-campus.