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APA Citation Style & Formatting

A guide to citing sources and to creating a list of references.

Examples

Journal Article

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy

In-press Articles

Author, A. A. (in press). Title of article. Title of Periodical.

Pre-prints

Author, A. A. (year). Title of article. Repository Name. DOI or URL

See also the APA Style Blog entry on Preprint Article References.

Magazine Article

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Magazine, issue, pages.

Newspaper Article

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, pp. A1, A2.*

*for one page use p. A1; for two or more pages use p.p. A1, A2,A3.

Lots of authors? See how to cite with one or two authors, 3-20 authors, 21 or more authors, or unknown authors in your reference list at the Purdue OWL Authors page.

Wondering how to write an in-text citation for them?  See this Purdue OWL In-text Citation Authors page too.

Print book

Author, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.

Electronic book

Author, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher. URL 

Electronic book chapter

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Copyright year). Chapter title. In: A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.). Book title (pp. #-#). Publisher. DOI or URL

Edited book without author

EditorName, B. B. & EditorName, C. (Eds.). (Copyright year). Title of book. Publisher. DOI or URL

Edited book with author

Author, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of book. B.B. EditorName (Ed.). Publisher. DOI or URL

Guideline with named authors

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of guideline. Publisher. URL

Guideline with institution as author

Name of the organization. (Year). Title of guideline. Publisher. URL

Guideline published in journal

Name of the organization. (Year). Title of guideline. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy

For more information on citing guidelines and clinical references, see the APA Style Blog entry on Clinical Practice References.

For tweets, status updates, photo or video posts, infographics, blog posts, etc.

Author [screen name]. (year, month day). Title [Type of content*]. Site name. URL

*Types of content: Tweet, Facebook status update, Video file, Infographic, Web log post, etc.

Whole Websites

There is no need to create references for whole websites. You can mention the website in the text. For example:

We created our visualizations using Vos Viewer (https://www.vosviewer.com/).

For more information, see the APA Style Blog entry on Whole Website References.

Webpages from one website

American Psychological Association. (n.d.-a). Divisions. http://www.apa.org/about/division/

American Psychological Association. (n.d.-b). Exercise and sport psychology. http://www.apa.org/about/division/div47.aspx

American Psychological Association. (n.d.-c). For division leaders. http://www.apa.org/about/division/officers/index.aspx

For more information, see the APA Style Blog entry on Webpage on a Website References.
Online periodicals

American Psychological Association. (2009). Blog guidelines. APA Style Blog. https://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/blog-guidelines.html

For more information on citing online resources, visit the Electronic Resources page of the Purdue OWL website.

YouTube VIdeos

Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guRoWTYfxMs

  • Parenthetical citation: (Harvard University, 2019) 
  • Narrative citation: Harvard University (2019)

YouTube Channel

APA Publishing Training. (n.d.). Home [YouTube channel]. Retrieved February 20, 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/user/PsycINFO/

Walker, A. (n.d.). Playlists [YouTube channel]. YouTube. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://www.youtube.com/user/DjWalkzz/playlists

  • Parenthetical citations: (APA Publishing Training, n.d.; Walker, n.d.)
  • Narrative citations: APA Publishing Training (n.d.) and Walker (n.d.)

Two Authors:
Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports...
(Wegener & Petty, 1994)

Three or More Authors:
Harris et al. (2001) argued...
(Harris et al., 2001)

Unknown Author:
A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using APA," 2001).

Organization as an Author:
According to the American Psychological Association (2000),...
First time: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)
Next time: (MADD, 2000)

Indirect Sources
Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).

See the Purdue OWL site for these examples and more details.