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APA Citation Style & Formatting

A guide to citing sources and to creating a list of references.

Examples

Journal Article

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy

In-press Articles

Author, A. A. (in press). Title of article. Title of Periodical.

Pre-prints

Author, A. A. (year). Title of article. Repository Name. DOI or URL

See also the APA Style Blog entry on Preprint Article References.

Magazine Article

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Magazine, issue, pages.

Newspaper Article

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, pp. A1, A2.*

*for one page use p. A1; for two or more pages use p.p. A1, A2,A3.

Lots of authors? See how to cite with one or two authors, 3-20 authors, 21 or more authors, or unknown authors in your reference list at the Purdue OWL Authors page.

Wondering how to write an in-text citation for them?  See this Purdue OWL In-text Citation Authors page too.

Journal Article (Print)—One Author

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number.

Reference List Example

Stewart, S. A. (2019). Parent’s experience during a child’s resuscitation: Getting through it. Journal

               of Pediatric Nursing47, 58-67.

Note: Some journals do not contain issue numbers (as in the example above). In this case, simply record the volume number and skip the issue number.

In-text Citation Examples

Direct quote

Stewart (2019) concludes "parents acknowledge a variety of emotional reactions" to the resuscitation experience (p. 58).

In retrospect, "parents acknowledge a variety of emotional reactions" to the resuscitation experience (Stewart, 2019, p. 58). 

Paraphrase

Not surprisingly, Stewart (2019) found that parents react emotionally when their child is being resuscitated.

Parents are likely to react emotionally when their child is being resuscitated (Stewart, 2019). 

Print book

Author, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.

Electronic book

Author, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher. URL 

Electronic book chapter

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Copyright year). Chapter title. In: A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.). Book title (pp. #-#). Publisher. DOI or URL

Edited book without author

EditorName, B. B. & EditorName, C. (Eds.). (Copyright year). Title of book. Publisher. DOI or URL

Edited book with author

Author, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of book. B.B. EditorName (Ed.). Publisher. DOI or URL

eBook—Library Database

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher. 

Reference List Example

Edmundson, M. (2015). Self and soul: A defense of ideals. Harvard University Press. 

Note: Database name and URL are not included. Treat like a print book. 

 

In-text Citation Examples

Direct quote

According to Edmundson (2015), "Self  yearns to fulfill its own desires" (p. 63).

While the Soul is characterized by altruism, "Self  yearns to fulfill its own desires" (Edmundson, 2015, p. 63). 

Paraphrase

Edmundson (2015) concludes that the Self is at odds with the Soul. 

The Self is at odds with the Soul (Edmundson, 2015). 

Guideline with named authors

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of guideline. Publisher. URL

Guideline with institution as author

Name of the organization. (Year). Title of guideline. Publisher. URL

Guideline published in journal

Name of the organization. (Year). Title of guideline. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy

For more information on citing guidelines and clinical references, see the APA Style Blog entry on Clinical Practice References.

Host, H. H. (Host). (Podcast run date). Title of podcast: Subtitle if given [Audio podcast]. Production Company. URL
Note: If the podcast is still airing, replace the second year with the word "present": (2015-present).  If the URL of the podcast is unknown (if it is accessed via an app), omit the URL.

Reference List Example

Vendantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR.

            https://www.npr.org/series/423302056/hidden-brain

In-text Citation Example (Referring to this podcast in a paper)

The immense popularity of NPR's Hidden Brain podcast proves that we have not entirely capitulated to shallow entertainment and are still excited by the world of ideas (Vendantam, 2015-present). 

Audio Podcast

Host, H. H. (Host). (Podcast run date). Title of podcast: Subtitle if given [Audio podcast]. Production Company. URL
Note: If the podcast is still airing, replace the second year with the word "present": (2015-present).  If the URL of the podcast is unknown (if it is accessed via an app), omit the URL.

Reference List Example

Vendantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR.

            https://www.npr.org/series/423302056/hidden-brain

In-text Citation Example (Referring to this podcast in a paper)

The immense popularity of NPR's Hidden Brain podcast proves that we have not entirely capitulated to shallow entertainment and are still excited by the world of ideas (Vendantam, 2015-present). 

For tweets, status updates, photo or video posts, infographics, blog posts, etc.

Author [screen name]. (year, month day). Title [Type of content*]. Site name. URL

*Types of content: Tweet, Facebook status update, Video file, Infographic, Web log post, etc.

Blog Post

Author, A. A. or Username if real name not provided. (Year blog post was published, Month Day). Title of blog post. Blog name or Source. URL

Reference List Example

Hutchison, P. (2019, June 27). How to grill the perfect hamburger. Art of Manliness.

               https://www.artofmanliness.com/articles/how-to-grill-the-perfect-burger/

In-text Citation Examples

Direct Quote

Hutchison (2019) points out that "cooking the perfect burger is an essential grilling skill that lots of people don’t have (and don’t even know they don’t have)" (para. 2).

BBQ masters know that "cooking the perfect burger is an essential grilling skill that lots of people don’t have (and don’t even know they don’t have)" (Hutchison, 2019, para. 2).

Paraphrase

According to Hutchison (2019), grilling a perfect burger is an art. 

Grilling a perfect burger is an art (Hutchison, 2019).

Whole Websites

There is no need to create references for whole websites. You can mention the website in the text. For example:

We created our visualizations using Vos Viewer (https://www.vosviewer.com/).

For more information, see the APA Style Blog entry on Whole Website References.

Webpages from one website

American Psychological Association. (n.d.-a). Divisions. http://www.apa.org/about/division/

American Psychological Association. (n.d.-b). Exercise and sport psychology. http://www.apa.org/about/division/div47.aspx

American Psychological Association. (n.d.-c). For division leaders. http://www.apa.org/about/division/officers/index.aspx

For more information, see the APA Style Blog entry on Webpage on a Website References.
Online periodicals

American Psychological Association. (2009). Blog guidelines. APA Style Blog. https://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/blog-guidelines.html

For more information on citing online resources, visit the Electronic Resources page of the Purdue OWL website.

Wikipedia

Note 1: Wikipedia may not be considered an acceptable source for a college or university assignment. Be sure to evaluate the content carefully and check with your instructor before using Wikipedia as a source.

Title of entry. (Archived date). In Wikipedia. URL

Note 2: Cite the archived version of the page so that readers can retrieve the version that you used. Access the archived version on Wikipedia by selecting "View history" and then the time and date of the version you used. If a wiki does not provide permanent links to archived versions of the page, include the URL for the entry and the retrieval date. 

Reference List Example

Cyberpunk. (2020, January 20). In Wikipedia. 

               https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cyberpunk&oldid=936720726

In-text Citation Examples

Direct quote

According to Wikipedia, "Blade Runner can be seen as a quintessential example of the cyberpunk style and theme" ("Cyberpunk," 2020, "Style and Ethos," para. 2). 

Paraphrase

The movie Blade Runner perfectly embodies the essence of cyberpunk ("Cyberpunk," 2020).

YouTube VIdeos

Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guRoWTYfxMs

  • Parenthetical citation: (Harvard University, 2019) 
  • Narrative citation: Harvard University (2019)

YouTube Channel

APA Publishing Training. (n.d.). Home [YouTube channel]. Retrieved February 20, 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/user/PsycINFO/

Walker, A. (n.d.). Playlists [YouTube channel]. YouTube. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://www.youtube.com/user/DjWalkzz/playlists

  • Parenthetical citations: (APA Publishing Training, n.d.; Walker, n.d.)
  • Narrative citations: APA Publishing Training (n.d.) and Walker (n.d.)

YouTube Video or Other Streaming Video

Uploader, U. U. [Username]. (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of work [Video]. Streaming Video Site. URL

Reference List Example 1

Hughes, K. [Hip Hughes]. (2019, September 23). Music in history: Blackbird (The Beatles). 

            [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/sfGlDmMiJeM

In-text Citation Examples

Direct quote

According to Hughes (2019), “The Beatles song Blackbird is actually about civil rights” (1:07).

Note: To point the reader of a paper to a specific spot in an audiovisual source, include a timestamp of the beginning of the quotation just as you would include a page number, as indicated above.

Paraphrase

Surprisingly, the Beatles classic song Blackbird is an ode to civil rights (Hughes, 2019).

Note: According to APA (p.344), the person who uploaded the video is credited as the author, even if they did not create the work. The username should be spelled and capitalized exactly as it appears. If no author is available, or if the author's name is identical to the username, leave it out. In the latter case, do not put the username in brackets (as illustrated with identical author and username, Good Housekeeping, below). 

Two Authors:
Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports...
(Wegener & Petty, 1994)

Three or More Authors:
Harris et al. (2001) argued...
(Harris et al., 2001)

Unknown Author:
A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using APA," 2001).

Organization as an Author:
According to the American Psychological Association (2000),...
First time: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)
Next time: (MADD, 2000)

Indirect Sources
Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).

See the Purdue OWL site for these examples and more details.

Using In-Text Citations

When referring to a source, you have three options for using it:

1. Directly Quoting

2. Paraphrasing

3. Summarizing

All three methods require the use of in-text citations.

Direct Quotation

A quote is an exact wording of the source material (either written or spoken). Quotes match the original source word for word. 

ORIGINAL PASSAGE: "People tend to use the internet in ways that endorse their existing world views and biases, exchanging information and ideas in echo chambers with like-minded others."

Examples:

When the author is signaled in the sentence, place the year of publication (in parentheses) after the author's name and the page number(s) of the quotation (in parentheses) following your direct quote:

DIRECT QUOTATION: While the Internet provides opposing viewpoints on pressing issues, psychologist F.M. Moghaddam (2019) argues "people tend to use the Internet in ways that endorse their existing world views and biases, exchanging information and ideas in echo chambers with like-minded others" (p. 17).

When the author is not signaled in the sentence, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) of the quotation (in parentheses) after your direct quote:

DIRECT QUOTATION: While the Internet provides opposing viewpoints on pressing issues, "people tend to use the Internet in ways that endorse their existing world views and biases, exchanging information and ideas

in echo chambers with like-minded others" (Moghaddam, 2019, p. 17).

Paraphrasing

A paraphrase is a detailed restatement in your own words of a written passage. You must significantly change the wording, phrasing, and sentence structure (not just a few words here and there) of the original source. It should be nearly the same length as the original and present the details of the original. 

ORIGINAL PASSAGE: "People tend to use the internet in ways that endorse their existing world views and biases, exchanging information and ideas in echo chambers with like-minded others."

Examples:

When the author is signaled in the paraphrased passage, place the year of publication (in parentheses) following the author's name. 

PARAPHRASE: Psychologist F. M. Moghaddam (2019) argues that people generally use the Internet to find and  exchange information that validates their existing beliefs.

When the author is not signaled in the paraphrased passage, place the author's last name and the year of publication (in parentheses) following your paraphrase.

PARAPHRASE: People generally use the Internet to find and exchange information that validates their existing beliefs (Moghaddam, 2019).

Note: When paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work, the APA encourages providing a page or paragraph number, especially when it would help an interested reader locate a relevant passage in a long or complex text. However, this is not required. 

Summarizing

summary is a condensed version of a passage. Similar to paraphrasing, summarizing involves using your own words and writing style to express another author's ideas. Unlike the paraphrase, which presents important details, the summary presents only the most important ideas of the passage. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original material. 

ORIGINAL PASSAGE: "People tend to use the internet in ways that endorse their existing world views and biases, exchanging information and ideas in echo chambers with like-minded others."

Examples:

When the author is signaled in the summarized passage, place the year of publication (in parentheses) following the author's name. 

SUMMARY: Psychologist F. M. Moghaddam (2019) contends that we do not generally use the Internet as a tool to check our biases.

When the author is not signaled in the summarized passage, place the author's last name and the year of publication (in parentheses) following your summary.

SUMMARY: We do not generally use the Internet as a tool to check our biases (Moghaddam, 2019).

Note: Although it is not required to provide a page or paragraph number in the citation for a paraphrase, you may include one in addition to the author and year when it would help an interested reader locate the relevant passage within a long or complex work.